Free Essay on Biometrics System
What is Biometrics system?
Two Greek words are the origin of the term “biometrics”. The word “Bio” means life, and “metrics” means to measure. In essence, biometrics refers to the measurement and analysis of biological data of individuals to identify and verify their identity.
Here, biological data refers to the measurements of human unique physical or behavioral characteristics such as fingerprints, eye retina, and iris, DNA, voice, face, hand size, signature, etc.
Biometrics system is a technology-based system that uses these unique physical or behavioral characteristics of individuals to identify and verify their identity.
This system works in two stages. One is the identification and the other is verification.
First, a specific identity or a person’s biometric data (DNA, fingerprints, retina, iris, voice instructions, facial patterns) is scanned by a biometrics device and stored in a database for verification.
During verification, the scanned biometric data of the person is compared with the data stored in the database. If the newly scanned data matches perfectly with the data stored in the database, the system can recognize the person and if it does not match, it cannot recognize the person, or the biometric systems don’t allow access to the person.
The History of Biometrics Technology and Its Development
Biometric technology has been used for identification and verification purposes for thousands of years. For example, ancient civilizations used physical features like handprints, footprints, and signatures to confirm identity.
However, the modern biometric technology that we know today began to develop in the late 19th century with the invention of fingerprint identification.
The first practical application of fingerprint identification came in 1896 when Sir Edward Henry, then Chief Commissioner of Police of Scotland Yard, developed a system for classifying and matching fingerprints. Other forms of biometric technology were developed in that decade, such as facial recognition and voice recognition.
In the 1960s, the first commercial biometric device, a hand geometry scanner, was introduced by a company called Recognition Equipment Inc.
The advent of digital technology in the 1970s and 1980s enabled the development of more advanced biometric systems, such as iris scanners and retinal scanners.
Today, biometric technology is used in a wide range of applications, from access control and authentication to border control and law enforcement. Technology has become an increasingly important tool in the fight against identity theft, fraud, and terrorism, and it is likely to continue to play an important role in the future of security and identification.
Types of Biometric Systems
Biometric systems are divided into different categories based on the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the individuals they receive as input.
These types of biometric systems use different types of biometric identifiers to identify and verify an individual’s identity. These identifiers are as follows.
• Fingerprint recognition: Firstly we see fingerprint recognition. This type of biometric system uses unique patterns on an individual’s fingertips to identify and verify their identity.
• Iris recognition: Iris recognition biometric system uses the unique patterns in an individual’s iris, the colored part of the eye, to identify and verify their identity.
• Retina recognition: Retina recognition is a type of biometric system that uses the unique patterns in an individual’s retina, the part of the eye that senses light, to identify and verify their identity.
• Hand geometry: A hand geometry biometric system is a type of biometric system that uses the physical characteristics of an individual’s hand to identify and verify their identity.
• Face recognition: A face recognition biometric system is a type of biometric system that uses an individual’s facial features to identify and verify their identity. It analyzes the unique characteristics of an individual’s face, such as the distance between the eyes, the shape of the nose, and the contours of the jawline, to create a digital representation of their face.
• DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) : DNA biometric system is a type of biometric system that uses an individual’s DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) to identify and verify their identity. DNA is unique to each individual, and the sequence of nucleotides in an individual’s DNA can be used to create a digital representation of their genetic information.
• Voice recognition: This type of biometric system analyzes an individual’s voice, including factors such as tone, pitch, and accent, to identify and verify their identity.
• Signature recognition: This type of biometric system analyzes an individual’s signature, including factors such as speed, pressure, and style, to identify and verify their identity.
Free Essay on Biometrics System
How Biometric Systems Works
A biometric system works by using a person’s unique physiological or behavioral characteristics to identify and verify their identity. Here are the basic steps of how a biometric system works:
Enrollment: In the first step, an individual’s biometric data is collected and stored in a database. This involves capturing a sample of the biometric identifier, such as a fingerprint, iris scan, or voice recording.
Extraction: Once the biometric data is collected, the system uses algorithms to extract unique features or characteristics from the data. These features are then converted into a digital representation or template that can be stored in the system’s database.
Comparison: When a person attempts to access a system or facility, their biometric data is captured again and compared to the stored template. The system uses algorithms to compare the features of the new sample with the features in the template to determine whether there is a match.
Decision: Based on the comparison, the system makes a decision about whether the individual’s identity has been verified or not. If there is a match, the system grants access or approves the transaction. If there is no match, the system denies access or rejects the transaction.
Biometric systems can vary in their specific technologies and applications, but they generally follow these basic steps. The accuracy and reliability of a biometric system depend on the quality of the biometric data, the algorithms used to extract and compare the data, and the overall design and implementation of the system.
Free Essay on Biometrics System
The Benefits of Using Biometric Technology
Biometric technology offers a range of benefits for individuals and organizations seeking to enhance security, convenience, accuracy, and efficiency in identification and verification processes.
Biometric systems provide a high level of security because they use unique physiological or behavioral characteristics to identify individuals. This reduces the risk of unauthorized access and fraud.
They do not require users to remember passwords or carry identification cards. This makes them easier and faster to use, particularly in high-traffic areas.
Biometric systems can help to reduce costs associated with traditional identification methods, such as issuing and managing ID cards, badges, or PINs. This can lead to cost savings for organizations and individuals.
This system provides a high level of accuracy because they use unique characteristics that are difficult to replicate or forge. Preventing identity theft and fraud is the greatest benefit of this system.
It also provides an audit trail of user activity, which can help to enhance accountability and prevent fraud or misuse.
Biometric systems can help to improve efficiency because they reduce the time and resources required for manual identification and verification processes.
Drawbacks of Biometric System
While biometric systems offer many benefits, it is important to consider the potential drawbacks and challenges associated with their use.
Biometric data is highly sensitive and personal information that can be used to identify individuals. As such, there are concerns about the potential misuse or abuse of this information, and the need for strong privacy protections.
The process of enrolling individuals into a biometric system and maintaining the system can be costly, both in terms of hardware and software, as well as the need for trained personnel.
Biometric systems can be vulnerable to security breaches, such as hacking or data theft. If biometric data is stolen or compromised, it cannot be changed or replaced like a password or identification card.
Free Essay on Biometrics System
In conclusion, biometric systems offer a reliable and secure method for identifying and verifying individuals based on their unique physical or behavioral characteristics.
These systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of applications, including access control, identity verification, and law enforcement. This system offers a powerful tool for enhancing security, improving convenience, and reducing fraud.
As technology continues to advance, it is likely that biometric systems will play an increasingly important role in our daily lives.
However, it is important to approach the use of these systems with caution and to be aware of the potential risks and limitations associated with their use.